Tuesday, November 22, 2016

Cerebral Palsy and the "Economy of Health"

The intrinsic (and extrinsic) complexities of Cerebral Palsy (CP) are numerous...to say the least.  Although this statement is generally quite intuitive, this reality sometimes / oftentimes gets lost when the actual business of strategic rehabilitative planning comes into play.  In other words, looking at all of these diverse complexities (whether biomechanical or systemic) as a group / sum of separate individual challenges will result in a large part of the "big picture" being missed.  To put it plainly, complex problems require complex solutions. 

This isn't to say that things are TOO complex...nor do I suggest that there is a dark cloud hanging over us all the time.  However, coming to grips with the understanding that (from a fundamental perspective) CP is a multi-layered complexity, will ultimately bridge the gap to another fundamental understanding...which is, to my belief, the most important: 

"The human organism is perhaps the most elegant manifestation of organic connectivity known to science."

Going through the actual true physiological meaning of that statement is far too involved for the relatively limited resources of a blog...but being a HUGE fan of analogies, I will simply import the one that I find to resonate the easiest and (more importantly) tends to "stick" in a more internal way. 

The Economy of Health

Indeed, there is a big difference between the economy (as we understand it) and a biological system...however the actual interaction, irritability, volatility, inter/intra-dependence, and connectivity are surprisingly comparable.  Further, almost everyone intrinsically understands the general premise of "deficit and surplus"...or "asset and liability"...and most certainly "TAXATION". 

Let us first refer to a healthy organism (thus, healthy economy) as our essential reference point.  A healthy organism boasts a critical amount of "natural resources" from which the to draw from.  For example, we have a certain amount of energy stored, and (from a neurological standpoint) our brains operate at a high level of efficiency and are able to effectively manage the autonomic requirements as well as serve as the central "hub" for everything we do voluntarily.  Further, our biomechanical "infrastructure" is set up so that they adequately meet the demands and rigours of our external environment. 

In CP, the overall "health economy" tends to slip and slide, rise and fall...all depending on the specific underlying robustness of the entire organism.  To put it more plainly:

1.  "Natural Resources" are low.  Respiration is altered and therefore oxygen / oxygenation is functioning at levels that do not support a growing organism

2. Systemic and biomechanical "deficits" begin to impinge on the overall amount of health "assets" one is able to contribute to the system.  This, in turn, results in a reduction in organic resources available for self-healing and self-regulation. 

3. Irritability (ability to interpret problems and respond to stresses) becomes delayed.  Similar to housing crashes and stock market plunges, the body's ability to recognize, diagnose, and adapt to stimulus is critical...and when overall "economic health assets" are low, this becomes more and more difficult.

4. For every systemic and/or biomechanical process (whether voluntary or involuntary), there is a heavy systemic and biomechanical "TAX" that is added on to that said process.  For example, normal levels of activity that would intuitively be acceptable for healthy individuals is ultimately outside of the range of manageability for someone with CP.  Although physical activity IS necessary for development and progress, it has to be mitigated by the imposed "systemic / biomechanical tax" that must be paid.  More importantly, it needs to be determined (individually) whether the payment of that tax is acceptable...or, and acceptable risk.  As an example, weight bearing activities are key to the development of balance and proprioception, but is the joint itself developmentally able (architecturally) to support and sustain full or partial body weight?  Therefore, the calculus becomes "how much of a biomechanical tax are we willing to pay by working on balance and proprioception?"  The reverse calculus can also be part of the larger equation..."how much proprioception and balance work will be loosing if we focus on architectural integrity?"  Although different practical questions, they are both considerations with a larger, complex, and interconnected system. 

In summary, I do not claim that a simple analogy will make the actual job of strategic planning less difficult...however, the understanding of the basic concept of how thriving economies work...from the more global "macro" economics down to the "micro" economics of our own household management, we get a different (but already instantly relatable) perspective on how the bigger picture is laid out...and how it is more than a simple "sum of parts". 

There is an interdependence and connectivity that cannot be dissected...and although the objective of progress and improvement sometimes seems daunting, economies (whether financial or biological) CAN indeed turn around.  It is most certainly a process of deceleration, control, and gradual "U-turn"...but it can be done. 

Last take-away: 

"Save all of your 'systemic and biomechanical pennies'...guard them and deposit them. Every cent counts.  It isn't simply a case of reducing your deficits...but a focused effort on growing your assets as well."


Thursday, May 26, 2016

Navigating Hip Pain in Cerebral Palsy

In a continuing series on hip pain in Cerebral Palsy (CP), I wanted to share an interesting (an actually quite common) occurence when addressing the issue of hip pain in children with CP and other neurodevelomental disorders.  As most parents know, ANY sign or indications of pain / discomfort that comes from the hip immediately generate a swell of stress, anxiety, and worry about hip subluxation, hip dysplasia, and other common dysfunction of the hips.  All of these are common and generally manifest at some point along the line...but it is important to take the time to carefully address / assess the SOURCE of the pain so that it can be resolved as quickly as possible as well as provide better insight on how to proceed in the most efficient manner.

Most cases of hip dysfunction / pathology are diagnosed / confirmed with an x-ray, but it is important to (first and foremost) understand the role and limitations of an x-ray.  In a previous post on hip subluxation, I explore in detail the specific nuances of understanding the pediatric hip x-ray...which I recommend you read / re-read either before or after this post.  In that particular post, I outline a set of practical questions that should be asked in conjunction with the information acquired via the x-ray that will help in providing some clarityand ultimately help navigate what is generally a worrisome period of time.

The standard procedure when hip pain is suspected is to take an immediate x-ray.  While this is intuitive and indeed necessary, the subsequent analysis oftentimes gets limited to ONLY the hip joint itself...meaning that once the images are taken, almost all of the focus and magnified and intensified in one specific area.  The reality (in any healthy or pathological condition) is that pain can be manifest in a wide number of areas...and for a wide number of reasons.

Neutral (without internal rotation)

Internal Rotation


The above images are a few quick "grabs" of some x-rays I reviewed a few weeks ago of a young girl who had recently begun experiencing pain in the hip area...manifesting during transfers and changes in position.  NB:  Not high quality images, but satisfactory for "pictures of pictures".  As "standard operating procedure", the x-rays were taken to examine the condition of the hip joint...and ultimately "confirm or discard" any specific issues with subluxation, dysplasia, or other common challenges.

Although my strategy going into any and all x-ray assessment is to look at the area in question, it is also (without question and without fail) to carefully examine and explore all of the articulations and bone mass captured in the image.  That is to say, not focusing on the hip joint itself and (whenever possible) look at the adjacent segment(s) above and below...all the way until you are "off the page". 

Before reading on, have a look at all of the images and take mental note of (if anything) strikes you or "jumps out" at you.

When I first saw these, there was a very immediate and explicit observation that literally leaped off the images...but, as a matter of practice, I followed through with a careful exploration of the bony information on the hip provided by these particular x-rays.  Without going into a lengthy and detailed assessment of these images, I will identify two main observations:

1.  The overall status of the hip / hip joint (as captured in these x-rays) looks relatively stable and, within the context of her particular pathology, look very good.  The variation between neutral, internal rotation, and Lowenstein is very small and negligible (perhaps even non-existent)...which generally suggests (with a certain level of confidence) that the joint and joint capsule are generally stable.

2.  There are some obvious asymmetries in the pelvis.

Asymmetric Pelvic Foramen

Healthy Pelvis

The pelvic foramen is essentially the "hole" that is formed by the joining of halves of the pelvis (which are connected at the front by the symphysis pubis and connect with the sacrum at the back).  A healthy pelvis will manifest a more symmetrical hole.  As demonstrated in the image below, the formal "shape" of the foramen is much more "circular or cylindrical".

 This was the first explicit indication of the potential genesis of pain...but the exploration continued.

Obturator Foramena

Note the shape and size of both Obturator Foramena (red arrows) 

Obturator Foramena (with abduction)

Of particular note and importance, when the legs are abducted, the overall shape (and therefore, position) of the obturator foramena (as well as the pelvic foramen, by the way) change considerably.  In other words, there is considerable disruption in structural integrity.  This visual information was then integrated into the previous set of symptoms and information gathered earlier.  To summarize:  
a) Significant pain that seems to come from the left hip (the "D" indicates the Right side).
b) Pain is manifest almost exclusively during movement and transfers.  More specifically with hip flexion.
c) Favored position (pain-free position) is neutral with no flexion or extension of the hip.
d) Underlying condition of high muscular tone (globally manifested).

Items C and D are of particular relevance when we consider the plethora of muscles and muscular attachments that enter / exit the hip...especially at the deepest levels. 
Deep Muscles of the Hip and Pelvis

The above illustration is an example some of the deep and intermediate muscles of the hip (left image is posterior, right image is anterior).  When we import the specific findings in the x-ray, the obvious conclusion is that the pelvis itself is manifesting a posterior tilt of the left side.  Although there are many potential "reasons" for this, the fundamental realities of CP are always at the nucleus:  

1.  ALL joints / articulations within the context of CP are weak...and therefore subject to excessive movement and displacement

2.  There is ALWAYS a certain level of muscular imbalance and disproportional levels of tension and weakness.  
RESULT:  Proportionally high levels of muscular tension and imbalance stress the various articulations and can potentially generate acute or chronic pain / dysfunction.  

In this particular case, it was concluded that the most likely genesis of the pain was this posterior tilt.  In essence, the acute bouts of pain during transfers and movement can be attributed to reflexatory muscular spasms of the deep hip / pelvic muscles.  If we refer back to the illustration above and simply abserve the number of muscles that originate or attach onto and around the pelvis (obturator foramen, symphysis pubis, etc..) it is not difficult to extrapolate the potential chance(s) for irregular stress and strain on the whole muscular system.  

With respect to the more practical "navigation" and management of pain, the specific objective becomes a tactical one:  

a) Manage levels of pain
b) Address the status and state of the muscles involved (those that play an immediate role in either reducing the amount of pelvic tilt and those that come under immediate threat of spasm). 
c) Implement a strategic mid-to-longterm plan to address the strength and integrity of the pelivs and pelvic joints (reduce the likelyhood of re-occurence and/or reduce the intensity/frequency/duration of pain).  

In summary, the main message is to (as best possible) engage in habits that encourage and facilitate a broad analysis of not only the area in question but the entire system.  In many cases, the formal "outlet" of pain (where it is felt) can have immediate and direct links but also indirect links to adjacent structures and architecture. 

Thursday, February 25, 2016

The Importance of Recovery in Cerebral Palsy

In the race to achieve developmental milestones, promote dynamic movement, and improve overall function, I have found that the "larger picture" is sometimes clouded if not lost completely.  By this I mean that the human organism operates (oscillates) within what I like to call a specific Biophysical Continuum.  In other words, we are not simply "ON" all the time...in fact, we exist within specific "states" of activation.  By activation, I refer to what is the predominant systemic / biomechanical system operating at any given time. 

This perspective is an attempt to provide some clarity on the human organism (person) as a whole...or as a "Supersystem" that is something more than just the sum of separate individual systems.  Rather, it is an exponentially complex and inter/intradependent piece of evolution and engineering.  In effect, it is likely beyond our current capabilities to truly comprehend...which is why the Biophysical Continuum is a valuable tool in navigating the journey through neurodevelopmental challenges. 

Biophysical Continuum

 As shown in the graphic above, we can effectively separate a full day into 3 formal "states":

1. Activation
2. Relaxation
3. Recovery

Being a continuum, there is no explicit "point" at which one state becomes another...rather that we "slide" seamlessly from one state to another, and at many times during the day, we exists in a state that can be a hybrid "blend" of either activation / relaxation and relaxation / recovery. 

Activation can be formally identified as "exercise and movement".  To be precise, it is manifest by HIGH levels of muscular, neurological, and mental resources.  There is a higher rate of catabolic activity which contributes to increased levels of metabolic build-up (lactic acid, etc...) which is toxic to the body and needs to be flushed, and there is a greater stress on biomechanical architecture and neurological resources (concentration).  Relaxation can be misleading, however within the context of this post, I refer to it as those mental and physical activities that take place during the course of the day.  In other words, the "routine" that takes place when we are not either sleeping or exercising.  In this phase, the mental / neurological / physical requirements are well within tolerable limits...mainly because they are likely to be habits that have become somewhat "automatic" and are essentially done within any real conscious effort or concern.  More importantly, systemic function is essentially at a "net zero" level...meaning that there is a sufficient amount of "input" to satisfy the required "output".  Recovery is most accurately defined as "sleep" (and in many cases, meditation as well).  It is during this phase that our systemic "oscillation" (respiration, digestion, lymphatic system, microcirculation) plays a primary role while the neuromuscular "engine" reverts to a primitive and formal "off" state.  This is THE state at which our evolutionary development and "operation" are hard at work.  We slip from any voluntary / conscious influence and are essentially operating on the autonomic / involuntary / primitive level. 

This is where we formally enter into our most valuable self-healing, self-regulating, and recovery phase.

If we assign a generic amount of time during a 24-hour day, we are presented with a breakdown that approaches something like the graphic above.  If we assume an average amount of sleep that centers around 8 hours (a lot for some and too little for others, but you get my meaning), an average of 30-60 minutes of what could be considered as "exercise / movement" based activity, and the remaining 15 hours manifested as "daily activity"...we are left with a "colour-code" that looks like that.  In essence, this is an example of an environment that is sustainable.

If we consider the realities in CP (and all neurodevelopmental disorders, in fact) we get a vastly different picture.  Disorders of movement and posture require extremely high levels of muscular activation (even to accomplish those tasks that we generally consider "easy") as well as high levels or mental resources.  To be precise, many if not most of what we normally classify within the context of "daily activity", falls into the category of "athletic exercise" in the individual with CP. 

The ultimate outcome is an environment that stresses ALL systemic and biomechanical resources...the result of which are those common challenges we see with alarming and consistent regularity:

-low bone density
-digestive distress
-muscle wasting
-immune system dysfunction
-altered respiratory mechanics
-low circulating oxygen
-hormonal imbalances
-etc, etc...

All of this taking place under the influence of (in most cases) irregular and/or insufficient sleep patterns.

The "bottom line" is that the mechanical and systemic equivalent in a healthy individual is something akin to exercising 14 hours a day, sleeping about 4 hours a night, and leaving approximately 6 hours to accomplish everything else we would attribute to daily function (eat, shower, leisure, study, work).  When placed within THIS context, the stress on the CP body becomes more clear...it is an enormous challenge to a growing organism

The body does not have adequate time to engage in the process of self-healing and self-regulation...meaning that recovery is insufficient and incomplete.

In summary, my primary message is intended to reflect the following:

ANY strategy that contributes to relaxation and enhanced sleep potential is a valuable and VITAL component to all rehabilitation plans.  Although all of the efforts to improve movement, balance, coordination, fine motor skill, etc...are critically important, they also ADD to the biomechanical, systemic, and neurological daily requirement.  Therefore, a careful and focused effort to potentiate the "rest and recovery" of an individual with CP will result in a Biophysical Continuum that is more harmonious and consistent with a sustainable supersystem.

In essence, the "investment into recovery" pays HUGE dividends within the realm of movement and dynamic function.  A system that is rested, fresh, and fluid will perform significantly better...which ultimately results in a better rate of progress.  More importantly, it "raises the ceiling" of potential and greatly enhances the prognosis and opportunity for a best-case scenario.


Friday, February 12, 2016

Early Detection and Intervention: Strategies for Immediate Action

One of the most frustrating realities within the context of Cerebral Palsy (CP) is that "diagnosis", as such, is generally made around the age of 2 years old.  In other words, although it may be known that there is SOME level of neurological damage (or at the very least the POSSIBILITY of neurological damage), the "call to action" with respect to a definitive rehabilitation plan is generally deferred until after an official diagnosis is confirmed.  To be clear, this is not to say that nothing is being done nor does it mean that best interests are not taken into account...what it does mean, however, is that specific strategies and action plans become significantly more defined and clear once the diagnosis has been made.  The logical question people are likely to have after reading that last statement is:    what's so strange about that?  The answer comes back in the form of another practical question:

Why must we wait until things are so "black" before we act?

In other words, there are many things that can be done within the "grey areas" that do not necessarily require a "diagnosis" in order to confirm viability.  Further, the first 12-24 months of life present enormous opportunities to implement profound change due to the high level of neuroplasticity and biomechanical compliance.  The need for a diagnosis goes well beyond the practical debate and extends into issues of liability and systemic function of the medical system...to be precise, almost the entire rehabilitation plan is pre-set  based on the diagnosis.  Although I agree with the necessity for standardization over customization (especially when we are speaking about providing a service to a larger mass of people), it does not mean that there is no room for individual strategies to be formulated that will result in a plethora of tangible (and intangible) positive outcomes. 

The next level of questioning is likely to be quite intuitive: 

If we don't have a diagnosis, how will we know where to start?

From a broader and more global perspective, we simply need to understand the fundamental reality that, regardless of whether there is a specific pathology involved or not, every human being requires healthy and robust systemic function (vital functions) in order to sustain life.  More specifically:

-Respiratory Mechanics
-Lymphatic Function
-Microcirculation (blood and interstitial / intercellular fluid)

Regardless of the diagnosis (or even the presence of a pathology), these are considerations that can be addresses and potentiated in a more immediate fashion.  This lends to the "organic" perspective as a precursor to the "mechanistic" perspective.  In other words: 

The diagnosis establishes the mechanistic strategy ("what is not working and how do we fix it") while early intervention establishes the organic strategy ("what is working and how can it work better").

It should be said that both of these perspective play a role in an effective and efficient rehabilitation strategy...however, the insertion of an organic perspective is what (in my opinion) is generally lacking and even overlooked completely. 

Early Detection:

One of my most proud accomplishments with respect to Fascia Therapy is the fact that it addresses these specific "voids" within the strategic options that parents / families / care-givers have.  Beyond being a viable "standalone" platform, adjunct / complement, and tactical management strategy, it has a well defined protocol for early detection and intervention.

Over the last 3 years, I have been fortunate enough to work with Dr. Veronica Delgado who is a well known physiatrist and doctor in Chile.  She has essentially formulated an "Early Detection Protocol" that uses a simple scoring system to identify potential markers for neurological impairment.  In addition (and in conjunction with), I have formulated a specific evaluation protocol that identifies postural and structural markers as well. 


Using both the neurological and structural metrics, we are better able to identify levels risk and therefore set a proper early intervention strategy. 

Early Intervention:

As stated earlier, as well in a few of my earlier posts on the importance of respiratory mechanics in neurodevelopmental disorders Part 1 and Part 2 , addressing and potentiating improved respiratory function extends not only into the systemic understanding, but has PROFOUND implications on the development of the pelvis and shoulder girdle...thereby having direct influence on health and function of the hips, legs, and arms.  This perspective is something that is worth a read / re-read. 

The Fascia Therapy concept addresses this consideration with what is called the Respiratory Protocol which has proven to be a valuable complement to early intervention strategies as well as part of a larger management strategy for all ages with neurological challenges. 

Along with the respiratory protocol, there are a group of specialized techniques that potentiate and enhance microcirculation, more specifically interstitial fluid.  To put it briefly, interstitial fluid is essentially the medium by which waste product is transported from the bloodstream to the lymphatic system...therefore having a profound impact on systemic health and homeostasis.  On addition, immune system function depends greatly on robust interstitial fluid flow.  In CP, microcirculation is greatly diminished and effectively manifests in poor tissue quality (colour, texture) as well as overall systemic deficits (chronic illness, stiffness, injury).  Being able to properly identify priority "targets" using these techniques greatly enhances systemic homeostasis and ultimately produces a stronger and more resistant organism. 

In summary, this post is intended to underscore the reality that, although "black and white" situations do indeed exist, the "grey areas" are exponentially larger...and they should be looked at as opportunities to implement profound, permanent, and lasting improvement. 



Saturday, January 9, 2016

Functional Range Conditioning for Cerebral Palsy: Introduction


This post has taken quite awhile to "come to print"...for no other reason other than it is the result of many rounds of formulation / implementation / re-formulation.  In essence, it is meant to be an evolution to the more common question raised both here in this blog and within the Cerebral Palsy (CP) landscape in general: Is stretching good or bad?   This is a question that I broach in an earlier post from 2012 called Stretching and Cerebral Palsy: What you should know.  If you have not read that entry yet, it goes into the specific challenges of stretching strategies in CP...but more importantly, it sheds some light on the actual biomechanical realities of this intervention.  As you will read (or may have already read) in that post, I don't identify a "clear winner" as to whether stretching is good or bad (or whether people should or shouldn't)...rather that it is something that requires some significant thought and formulation.  Additionally, we should be very careful when we attempt to "import" rehabilitation strategies we use in the healthy population to the world of CP.  The biomechanical and architectural realities are so different that we need to approach mechanical issues with significantly more care, analysis, and formulation. 

Taking all of this into account, I will begin the process of sharing a strategy I have called Functional Range Conditioning for CP.  It is a relatively comprehensive set of skills from the objective observers perspective that is based in an equally "heavy" physiological foundation...but at the same time, it is something that lends well to the "end-user".  This means that it has been specifically formulated to resonate well with any parent / care-giver and therefore serve as a valuable tool that can be used directly in the home.

The term "Functional Range Conditioning" is something I have essentially borrowed from an already established methodology used in athletes that efficiently and effectively frames an essential (and fundamental) reality:

In order for functional performance to improve (and thus reach maximum potential), we must first ensure that joints actually behave as joints.  If the singular articulations are dysfunctional, then the movement potential of the entire body is limited.  

Therefore, the strategy --- when addressing the issue of restricted / reduced ranges of motion --- is to first identify the dynamic behaviour of the joints before engaging in any active (or aggressive) stretching protocols.

Mitigating the challenges and risks of stretching

Challenges and risks??!  These specific things are identified in detail in the earlier stretching post, but once you have absorbed these risks and challenges, the next practical question becomes: 

"How do I (we) navigate and reduce them?

One of the MANY architectural challenges in CP is the inherent "mismatch" between the excessive strength (tightness) of the muscle fiber and the relative weakness of the connective tissue "anchors" (tendon, tendon attachment to the bone).  In other words, when we import a standard stretching protocol to CP, it is impossible to confidently be sure that the stretch itself is actually stretching muscle or in fact stressing / straining the tendon and/or the attachments to the bone. 

Therefore, before any angular (dynamic) movement is done, we should first provide some essential "nutrition" to the joint itself.  This is the first step in Functional Range Conditioning:

1. Joint Health and Nutrition

In order to achieve true productive range of motion, the joints MUST be healthy (or as healthy as possible) and formally behave (perform) as they are designed.  The reality in CP is that the majority of the synovial joints manifest moderate to profound stiffness.  In other words, the joint capsule (the connective tissue that covers the entire joint like a sac) manifests a certain fibrosis.  This means that rather than being a pliable and adjustable membrane, it is tight, fibrous, and relatively unforgiving. 

"Sponge Analogy"

I have used the Sponge Analogy on many occasions and I can honestly say that it is one of my most favorite ways of explaining joint behaviour in a way that is almost instantaneously understandable. 

Joint require a certain level of fluid...not only within the joint itself, but within the layers of tissue and even down to the cellular level.  This fluid essentially "bathes" the joint...providing not only lubrication and movement freedom, but also NUTRIENTS.  When a joint is fibrotic, it can formally be related to a dry sponge.  

The image above essentially demonstrates the 3 states that joints can manifest.  They should not be considered as 3 separate states, however...this should be looked at as a continuum.  Meaning that there is a gradual change in state when we move from one extreme to the other. 

Dry Sponge

The dry sponge represents the fibrotic joint.  It is rigid, in some cases distorted, and very much devoid of nutrients. 

Moist Sponge

This is meant to represent the "ideal homeostatic state" of a joint.  There is sufficient amounts of interstitial fluid to maintain its integrity as well as provide it with the required amount of nourishment.

Wet Sponge

The wet sponge represents the joint that has experienced some form of trauma...whether it be an acute injury or the result of long-term chronic stress.  Think of this as swelling or edema.

If we consider this analogy, then imposing angular dynamic movement (stretching) around this joint can potentially (if not likely) run the risk of unseen (and potentially de-stabilizing) injury or insult.  As a matter of strategic wisdom, when we are dealing with the challenges of CP and stiff / fibrotic joints...

The first "order of business" is to implement those techniques and interventions that are the most efficient at moving and mobilizing Interstitial Fluid towards the joint itself.

These techniques and interventions are part of the specific skillset and toolset used within the Fascia Therapy framework and are easily delivered during our training sessions. 

2. Functional Range Development

This step is implemented after (or in some cases, concurrently) the joint health and integrity step.  This step has 2 fundamental aspects:  a)  use specialized manual techniques to relax stiff and tight muscle...and b) impose progressive multi-joint movement patterns (using varied tools such as pilates balls and stability balls) to engage and activate the entire neuromuscular chain just as it would be engaged and activated in a real-life environment.

These movement patterns are quite varied and are essentially dependant on the individuals intrinsic movement competence and abilities...however, they are implemented based on the process of natural human motor development and formally help to potentiate movement through the developmental process in a more efficient and timely manner. 

In summary, this is only an initial overview of the framework of Functional Range Conditioning.  As with any approach, it should not be considered as a magic bullet...nor does it's existence and/or implementation negate or diminish the outcomes of other strategies.  It is meant to serve as a viable and realistic adjunct to all long term rehabilitative strategies...more specifically, a safe and effective way to develop, activate, and nourish better movement coordination and performance. 

More to come!